Affiliated with the
Communication & Space
Sciences Laboratory

Fractal Antenna Engineering

Genetically Engineered Miniature Fractal Antennas


Fractal antenna engineering concepts have been successfully combined with genetic algorithms to develop a powerful design optimization tool. The genetic optimization approach developed can simultaneously optimize the geometry of a fractal antenna, locations of loads, component values of loads, and projected length of the fractal antenna. The results suggest that a 30-55% size reduction can be achieved by optimizing the fractalization of a given antenna.

Koch curve generated by an Iterated
Function System (IFS)
Conventional half-wave dipole and geometry of the fractal dipole at 1.225 GHz
A miniature dual-band direct-write fractal dipole antenna with a direct-write passive LC load on Kapton
The measured frequency response of a miniature dual-band direct-write fractal dipole antenna shown via a network analyzer screen trace. The vertical axis is 10 dB per division with 0 dB as the reference.

..: References :..

1-) Genetically Engineered Miniature Multiband Fractal Antennas
by D. H. Werner and P. L. Werner,

2-) Genetically Engineered Multiband Fractal Antennas
by D. H. Werner, P.L. Werner and K.H. Church,
Electronics Letters, Volume 37, Issue 19, pp. 1150 - 1151, 13 September 2001.

3-) Direct-Write Processes as Enabling Tools for Novel Antenna Development
by Michael J. Wilhelm, Douglas H. Werner, Pingjuan L. Werner, Ken Church, and Robert Taylor
2002 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation. San Antonio, Texas, June 16-21.

ABSTRACT: Significant research effort is regularly applied to the goal of reducing the size of radiofrequency antennas while maintaining the entire set of positive attributes of proven but relatively large antennas. Such parameters as frequency response (multiple or single), bandwidth, and complexity of the antenna-driver balun structures require iterative optimization. The direct-write processes now available have enabled the insertion of reactive-loading elements as integral parts of the antenna structure, especially into new conformal designs. These reactive loading elements were used in conjunction with modern design techniques to achieve antenna devices that were reduced in size to as much as half that of traditional counterparts. The performances of the miniaturized antennas constructed by direct-write methods were evaluated and compared to those of traditional antenna structures.

4-) Load Sensitivity Analysis for Genetically Engineered Miniature Multiband Fractal Dipole Antennas
by D.H. Werner, P.L. Werner, J.W. Culver, S.D. Eason and R. Libonati
2002 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation. San Antonio, Texas, June 16-21.

5-) On The Design Of Small Thin-Wire Antennas Using GA
by M. Fernández Pantoja, F. García Ruiz, A. Rubio Bretones, S. González García, R. Gómez Martín, J. M. González Abersú, J. Romeu, J. M. Rius, P. L. Werner and D. H. Werner

ABSTRACT: A new set of genetically generated electrically small antennas with a better performance than that of several families of Sierpinsky prefractal monopoles of the same electrical size at resonance is presented.

6-) GA Design of Small Wire Antennas
by M. Fernández Pantoja, F.García Ruiz, A. Rubio Bretones, R. Gomez Martin, S. González García , J.M. González-Arbesú, J. Romeu, J.M. Rius, D.H. Werner and P.L. Werner
2004 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, Monterey, California, June 20-26.

ABSTRACT: A multiobjective Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been applied to the design of electrically small thin-wire antennas taking into account the resonance frequency, efficiency and Q factor of the different configurations. The performance of the resulting designs is compared to that of other prefractal antennas of similar size.

__If you cannot open .PDF files please download Adobe Reader